What Is PIMA?
What is PIMA

Public Investment Management Assessment (PIMA) is a comprehensive framework to assess infrastructure governance practices for countries at all levels of economic development. Specifically, PIMA evaluates 15 institutions involved in the three key stages of the public investment cycle:

  • Planning of sustainable investment across the public sector;
  • Allocation of investment to the right sectors and projects;
  • Implementation of investments projects to deliver productive and durable public assets.

Each institution is assessed on both institutional strength (the organization, policies, rules and procedures on paper) and effectiveness (the degree to which the intended purpose is being achieved in practice or there is a clear useful impact).

PIMA also covers a qualitative assessment of three cross-cutting factors that often impact the overall effectiveness of public investment management: (1) the legal and regulatory framework, (2) staff capacity, and (3) IT systems.


PIMA Framework

(Click on the interactive chart to explore)




    Cross-Cutting Institutions
Legal Framework, IT System, Staff Capacity


Understanding the PIMA data

(Click through the slide show to learn how PIMA data is measured and evaluated)


Benefits of PIMA

Comprehensive assessment
PIMA covers the full public investment cycle in a comprehensive manner.

Accessible results
PIMA allows effective communication of country results including through visualized charts, which helps identify gaps and reform priorities.

Practical implementation
PIMA provides concrete recommendations tailored to country specific needs and capacities, which are ready to be implemented.

Better coordination
PIMA serves as a catalyst for stronger coordination and follow-up support by development partners, as it facilitates shared understanding of key challenges in public investment.


Benefits of PIMA


How are PIMAs used?

PIMA reports include a set of prioritized recommendations and action plans tailored to each country. Because these are produced through a consultative approach encompassing government ministries and agencies, development partners, and other actors, these recommendations typically have broad support. Many countries have taken actions to implement PIMA recommendations. 


Examples of government actions to implement PIMA recommendations:


What are the Key Findings of PIMAs?

The PIMAs conducted so far provide valuable insights into the strength of infrastructure governance institutions across countries.

  • All countries, most notably emerging markets and low-income developing countries, have significant room to improve their infrastructure governance to increase effectiveness in public investment.
  • Countries generally score higher on institutional design than effectiveness. This points to the critical importance of having institutions that are not only well-designed, but also function well in practice.
  • The gap between institutional design and effectiveness is most pronounced for low-income developing countries, reflecting weak implementation capacity in these countries.
  • Across the three key stages of the public investment cycle—planning, allocation, and implementation—the lowest effectiveness scores and highest gaps are generally recorded in the allocation and implementation stages, when assets are selected, monitored, and maintained.
  • Countries often score more poorly in institutions specific to public investment decision making (e.g. project appraisal, project selection, and maintenance funding), compared to more general public financial management institutions (e.g. budget comprehensiveness and availability of funding).